1. Core data sets used by the DOPA.

You will find hereafter links to the original data sets used in the DOPA.


  • Boundaries
(GAUL) Global Administrative Unit Layers

Protected areas:

  • Boundaries and management categories
World Database on Protected Areas


  • Species distribution ranges and threat levels
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species


  • Terrestrial Ecoregions
Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World

  • Marine Ecoregions
Marine Ecoregions of the World

Elevation models

  • Bathymetry
General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans
British Oceanographic Data Centre on behalf of the International
Hydrographic Organization (IHO) and the Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO.


  • Land
(SRTM 30) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission


  • Rainfall, T, Evapotranspiration
Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN),
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)


  • Population density
Gridded Population of the world
Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN),
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)


  • Road maps
Global Roads Open Access Data Set
Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN)
and Information Technology Outreach Services - ITOS -University of Georgia


  • Crop
Cropland percentage map




2. Core indicators proposed by the DOPA

You will find more details about the indicators proposed in DOPA.

Species indicators

Species Coverage Index: the Species Coverage Index (SCI) is computed for each PA to take into account the number of species and their endemicity. It considers the spatial coverage of three taxa (birds, mammals and amphibians) derived from 1 km-resolution IUCN Red List maps.As recommended by Hartley et al. (2007), the SCI was calculated as follows: 1) the number of PAs inwhich a given species occurs (n) is determined: 2) (1/n) is computed and that value is allocated to each PA containing the species: 3) all values for a given PA are summed to yield its final SCI. The higher the value of the SCI, the higher the number of endemic species in the PA and the more important is the role of this PA, in the context of the currently-protected network of areas, for conserving biodiversity.
Reference: Hartley et al. (2007)

Species Irreplaceability Index (SII): the Species Irreplaceability index takes into account the number of species and their endemicity. It is derived from 1 km resolution IUCN Red List maps generated for three taxa (birds, mammals, amphibians). This index is computed using the methodology of Le Saout et al. (2013). Its value for any specific PA is independent of the degree of species coverage within other PAs, allowing SII values to be directly compared across sites worldwide. In contrast to SCI, SII is dominated by species for which a PA has the most responsibility, with little contribution by species that overlap the site to very small extents. This method was used by IUCN to identify potential candidate sites for inclusion in the natural World Heritage network. It highlights PAs of particular importance for avoiding the extinction of species (those with relatively high fractions of species ranges within them).
Reference: Le Saout et al. (2013).

Species Protection Statistics: Species Protection Statistics were calculated by overlaying IUCN species range polygons (2014) with the boundaries of protected areas (WDPA 2014) to identify gaps. These statistics will be supplemented by independent reported species occurrence counts supplied by IUCN. These data are intended to be informative, rather than prescriptive. Whenever possible, they should be complemented by more detailed information on the degree to which species depend on each protected area (e.g. information on habitat suitability, relative abundance, or population dynamics) and on the costs and opportunities of management.The IUCN species range maps used to calculate SCI and SII represent a depiction for communication and/or conservation planning purposes. A taxon may not be evenly distributed within the defined limits of distribution. Ranges, in particular, are mapped as generalized polygons which often include areas of unsuitable habitat, and therefore a species may not occur in all of the areas where they are mapped.

Pressure indicators

Agricultural Pressure Index (API): the Agricultural Pressure Index is based on the average percentage of cropland in 1 km raster cells within a 30 km buffer zone around protected areas, aggregated to a single metric using an inverse distance weight function. The IIASA-IFPRI cropland percentage map for the baseline year 2005 (Fritz et al., 2015) was used to identify the percentage of cropland in each cell within the buffer.

Population Pressure Index (PPI): the Population Pressure index is the average population density in a buffer area representing 3 hours of travelling, delineated around each Protected Area. Population data were obtained using the Gridded Population of the World map for the year 2000 (GPW, v318). The percentage population change is the percentage change in this computed metric between 1990 and 2000, with the 1990 value as a baseline.

External Road Pressure: the External Road Pressure is calculated based on the percentage of cells with presence of roads within a 30 km buffer zone around protected areas, using an inverse distance weight function. The Global Roads Open Access Data Set (gROADS), v1 (1980-2010) was used to identify roads globally, after rasterising it to 500 m resolution. The pressure values are normalized by country only, not by ecoregion, due to differences between countries in the density and detail of the road data supplied.
Internal Road Pressure is calculated based on the percentage of cells with presence of roads within each protected area, using the same rasterised data.

Ecological indicators

Habitat Diversity Index (HDI): Each protected area is characterized by a number of independent ecological landscapes identified through the automatic segmentation of several environmental variables. The higher the number of segments, the more complex is the habitat. The terrestrial HDI is defined as the number of segments divided by the square root of the surface of the protected area (in km2) and then multiplied by 1000. For marine protected areas, habitat diversity is summarized using the standard deviation of bathymetry. This measure has been used to identify habitats most likely to host a larger variety of species as topographic complexity is correlated to species diversity (McCoy & Bell, 1991; Thrush et al. 2001). The value presented as the HDI has been log-transformed in order to generate meaningful distinctions across a wide range of values.